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WNT/beta-catenin signaling is involved in regulation of osteoclast differentiation by human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir: relationship to human immunodeficiency virus-linked bone mineral loss.

TitleWNT/beta-catenin signaling is involved in regulation of osteoclast differentiation by human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir: relationship to human immunodeficiency virus-linked bone mineral loss.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsModarresi R, Xiang Z, Yin M, Laurence J
JournalAm J Pathol
Volume174
Issue1
Pagination123-35
Date Published2009 Jan
ISSN1525-2191
Keywordsbeta Catenin, Bone Demineralization, Pathologic, Cell Differentiation, HIV Infections, HIV Protease Inhibitors, Humans, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Osteoclasts, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ritonavir, Signal Transduction, Wnt Proteins
Abstract

Untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is accompanied by reduced bone mineral density, which appears to be exacerbated by certain HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). The mechanisms leading to this apparent paradox, however, remain unclear. We have previously shown that, the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 used at levels similar those in plasmas of untreated HIV(+) patients, induced expression of the osteoclast (OC) differentiation factor RANKL in CD4+ T cells. In addition, the HIV PI ritonavir abrogated the interferon-gamma-mediated degradation of the RANKL nuclear adapter protein TRAF6, a physiological block to RANKL activity. Here, using oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we explored potential upstream mechanisms for these effects. Ritonavir, but not the HIV PIs indinavir or nelfinavir, up-regulated the production of transcripts for OC growth factors and the non-canonical Wnt Proteins 5B and 7B as well as activated promoters of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling, but suppressed genes involved in canonical Wnt signaling. Similarly, ritonavir blocked the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, the molecular node of the Wnt signaling pathway, in association with enhanced beta-catenin ubiquitination. Exposure of OC precursors to LiCl, an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt antagonist GSK-3beta, suppressed OC differentiation, as did adenovirus-mediated overexpression of beta-catenin. These data identify, for the first time, a biologically relevant role for Wnt signaling via beta-catenin in isolated OC precursors and the modulation of Wnt signaling by ritonavir. The reversal of these ritonavir-mediated changes by interferon-gamma provides a model for possible intervention in this metabolic complication of HIV therapy.

DOI10.2353/ajpath.2009.080484
Alternate JournalAm. J. Pathol.
PubMed ID19095956
PubMed Central IDPMC2631325
Grant ListAI65200 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
DK65511 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
HL55646 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
K23 AI059884-04 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States

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